Robert Indiana

"I was the least Pop of all the Pop artists."

Robert Clark (1928-2018), better known as Robert Indiana, was born in New Castle, Indiana is a “self-proclaimed American painter of signs.” After moving to New York City in 1954 and joining the pop art movement, Indiana began drawing on commercial art approaches blended with the idea of existentialism. Gradually this idea moved toward what Indiana calls “sculptural poems.” (Read More)

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In 1962, Eleanor Ward’s Stable Gallery hosted Robert Indiana’s first New York solo exhibition. He has since enjoyed solo exhibitions at over 30 museums and galleries worldwide. Indiana’s works are in the permanent collections of numerous museums, including MOMA, New York; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Stedelijk Museum, Schiedam, The Netherlands; Carnegie Institute, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California; the Hirshhorn Museum in Washington D.C.; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and the Los Angeles County Museum, California; among many others. 

Indiana’s work often consists of bold, simple, iconic images, especially numbers and short words like EAT, HUG, and, his best-known example, LOVE. His work explores the American identity and the power of abstraction and language. By using a written word as the central element of his work, Indiana created a legacy for all contemporary artists after him. 

In 2008, Indiana created an image similar to his iconic LOVE (letters tacked two to a line, the letter “o” tilted on its side), but this time showcasing the word HOPE, and has donated all proceeds from the image went to the Democratic National Committee for Barack Obama’s presidential campaign. A stainless-steel sculpture of HOPE was unveiled outside Denver’s Pepsi Center during the 2008 Democratic National Convention.


Important Exhibitions

2017    Robert Indiana: One Through Zero, The Glass House, New Canaan, Connecticut, USA

2015    Amor by Robert Indiana, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania, USA.

Apparitions: Frottages and Rubbings from 1960 to Now, Menil Collection, Houston, TX, USA

Take an Object, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA

Picasso to Francis Bacon, Hangaram Art Museum, Seoul, South Korea

Pop Art Design, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Illinois, USA

2014    Robert Indiana’s Hartley Elegies, McNay Art Museum, San Antonio, Texas, USA

Witness: Art and Civil Rights in the Sixties, Brooklyn Museum, New York, NY, USA

Pop Art Prints, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C., USA

Liebe, Wilhelm-Hack-Museum, Ludwigshafen, Germany

Pop Art Myths, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain

Ludwig Goes Pop, Museum Moderne Kunst Stiftung Ludwig, Vienna, Austria

2013    Robert Indiana: Beyond LOVE, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY, USA

Love Actually, Seoul Museum of Art, South Korea

All You Need is LOVE: From Chagall to Kusama and Hatsune Miku, Mori Art Museum, Tokyo, Japan

2009    Von Picasso bis Warhol, Künstlerschmuck der Avantgarde, Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Cologne, Germany

1998    Retrospective, Musée D’Art Moderne Contemporain, Nice, France

1982    Indiana: A 25 Year Retrospective of Paintings and Sculptures from the Collection of Robert Indiana, National Museum of Art, Smithsonian Institute, Washington D.C., USA

1978    Art About Art, Whitney Museum of Art, New York, USA

1975    American Art Since 1945, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA

1968    First one-man museum exhibition travels to the Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

1967    9th Sao Paulo Biennial, Sao Paulo, Brazil

1966    Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Sculpture, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA

1965    Word and Image, Guggenheim Museum, New York, USA

Annual Exhibition of American Paintings, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA

1963    Americans 1963, Museum of Modern Art, New York; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, Massachusetts, USA


Permanent Collections

Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld, Germany

Stedelijk Museum, Schiedam, the Netherlands

Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, California, USA

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA

Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California, USA

Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnasota, USA

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA